Branding: Even For Linux and FOSS, It's Everything
The Opposition Creates the Brand
Traditionally, any mention of marketing has the average member of the free and open source software (FOSS) community reaching for the garlic and crucifixes. Yet, despite the baying of mobs with pitch forks and torches in the background, the topic of how FOSS presents itself to the world at large has started to be raised in blogs. The consensus is that FOSS has not taken control of its identity, and would be more successful if it did.
Within the community, FOSS is well established as a brand. However, outside the community, FOSS' identity is less clear. There are at least seven reasons for this lack of clarity, all of which need to be addressed if the community is going to grow much beyond its current size.
1) Allowing the opposition to establish the FOSS brand
The trouble with the present FOSS brand is that it is not created by those with a stake in it. To a large extent, it is created by those who oppose FOSS and all that it stands for.
Part of the problem is the propaganda that companies like Microsoft have spewed out for years, such as the claim that FOSS is hard to use or poor quality. This propaganda is usually false, or a half-truth at best, but in the absence of any strong public counter-claims, it is widely accepted. Such claims also put the FOSS community on the defensive, distracting it from developing a counter-claim and opening it to the charge of being entirely negative, or perhaps envious of its rivals.
Yet this propaganda is not the worst problem. Despite the attention given to the propaganda by those involved, the average computer user has probably never heard its claims. Instead, the larger part of the problem is that FOSS' opponents have managed to a large extent to remove it from the discussion entirely.
In many unsophisticated users' minds, operating systems and Windows have become so synonymous that the idea of an alternative like GNU/Linux is impossible for them to imagine. Similarly, when Apple ran its famous "I'm a Mac" ads, FOSS operating systems were nowhere to be seen. In effect, reality is being continually rewritten so that FOSS does not exist.
Just as a negative election ad traps its target into a discussion where the terms are stacked against them, so the image of FOSS keeps its supporters on the defensive (or even non-existent), and unable to present any alternatives of their own. The fact that dissecting framing fits well into the Internet tradition of flame-wars only makes answering the claims all that much more of a distraction.
2) Creating micro-brands
As Aaron Seigo points out, the branding that does exist in FOSS usually occurs on the project or the corporate level. The reason for this emphasis, he suggests, is the pride that project members have in their accomplishment, and the wish to have corporations' customers focus on the company rather than the community. Some of these micro-brands, such as Firefox, have been enormously successful, others less so.
But the point is that these micro-brands do not emphasize their connections to a greater whole called FOSS. For instance, when a distribution like Ubuntu or Fedora adds a unique theme and wallpaper to the GNOME desktop, it is furthering its own brand, not GNOME's. Considerable effort goes into these micro-brands, yet each is too small to become a successful brand by itself.
Or, as Seigo puts it, "We have made it hard for people to take notice of what we are doing with the Linux Desktop since none of the brands are identifiable as 'belonging to the same thing.' Instead we end up with microbrands that nearly no one outside of the server room or the hardcore F/OSS community recognizes."
As a small step towards a solution, Seigo proposes a joint visual marketing effort with KDE and other projects, especially distros. Whether this effort will attract any attention is uncertain, but the point is that, just as everyone benefits when code is shared, so everyone in the community might benefit by establishing the larger brand of FOSS. By contrast, continuing to promote micro-brands means considerable effort for very little return.
3) Being distracted by minor divisions
For as long as the personal computer has existed, users have championed their favorite software. But FOSS users are often contributors to their favorite software and tend to have a larger stake in it. Consequently, FOSS users can be much more fanatical about software than proprietary users. The result is endless flame wars -- for instance, vi vs. emacs or GNOME vs. KDE, or free software vs. open source.
The objects of these flame wars have real differences, and the differences are worth discussing. However, the trouble is that, by focusing too closely on these differences, you can lose sight of the fact that they are far more similar than difference. For instance, although GNOME and KDE provide very different user experiences, they are both FOSS, and alternatives to Windows or OS X.
Occasionally, this obvious fact is noticed, and the result is something like freedesktop.org, which attempts to create cooperation between FOSS alternatives at the coding level. Too often, though, such efforts peter out after a while, and bickering returns, making any joint efforts at branding or anything else impossible.
This tendency is so strong that when Seigo's proposals were linked on the LWN site, the comment thread was soon hijacked by the obsolete discussion of the relative merits of KDE 3.5 and 4.0 -- a topic that was both irrelevant and minor compared to the idea of joint branding efforts.