June 19, 2018

Security and Apache: An Essential Primer - page 4

Maxwell's Demon and Hat Colour

  • February 21, 2000
  • By Ken Coar
The preceding sections have been subtly leading up to this topic. Apache handles all requests by running them through phases. Each Apache module has an opportunity to deal with the request during each of the phases, though most modules only do so for one or possibly two of them.

Apache has three processing phases relating to security checking. They occur in the following order, and are given the following names:

  1. access_checker -- This phase is where mandatory access checks are applied, such as mod_access' check for whether the client's IP address is allowed to access the document or not
  2. check_user_id -- This is the authentication phase, during which a DAC module such as mod_auth checks the user credentials to see if they're even in the database it's been told to use
  3. auth_checker -- This is the phase during which authorization occurs; modules like mod_auth check to see if the user (who has already been authenticated) is allowed to access the document

Modules that impose discretionary access checks usually participate in the latter two phases.

Basic Authentication versus Digest Auth
How does the username and password get transmitted across the network? Well, in early 2000 the answer is: not very well. It's not that there are technical problems with the transmission; rather, the issues are more philosophical.

There are currently two main methods of passing credentials, called Basic authentication and Digest authentication. The Digest method is considerably more secure, but unfortunately less widely deployed--so most authentication on the Web is done using the less-secure Basic mechanism.

Basic authentication involves simply base64-encoding the username and password and transmitting the result to the server. This means that anyone who can intercept the transmission can determine the username and password. Of course, this is only useful if those values are valid and end up getting successfully authenticated. Digest authentication transmits the information in a manner that cannot be so easily decoded.

Since the username and password are so trivially protected in the Basic authentication mechanism, the same authentication database can be used to store user information for multiple realms. The Digest mechanism, though, includes an encoding of the realm for which the credentials are valid, so you must have a separate credentials database for each realm using the Digest method.

When setting up discretionary controls in your Apache configuration, remember that the AuthType directive is required. The setting can be inherited from a higher-level directory or location, but something must set the value to be inherited; there is no default.

Mixing Mandatory and Discretionary Controls--The Satisfy Directive
Sometimes you want to mix and match discretionary and nondiscretionary access controls, such as allowing anyone on the local network to see documents freely, but requiring anyone else to enter a username and password.

This can be done with the Satisfy directive, which takes a single keyword:

In order to gain access to documents within the scope of a Satisfy�All directive, a client must pass both any applicable non-discretionary controls (such as Allow or Deny directives) and any discretionary ones (like Require directives).
Documents within the scope of a Satisfy�Any directive are accessible to any clients that either pass the non-discretionary check (which occur first) or the discretionary ones

To illustrate, the following would permit any client on the local network (IP addresses 10.*.*.*) to access the foo.html page without let or hindrance, but require a username and password for anyone else:

        Order Deny,Allow
        Deny from All
        Allow from
        AuthName "Insiders Only"
        AuthType Basic
        AuthUserFile /usr/local/web/apache/.htpasswd-foo
        Require valid-user
        Satisfy Any

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